Primary care services

Get Tested Today

 

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FE TES 

NORTH MIAMI CENTER
650 N.W. 120th Street, North Miami, Florida 33168
Tel: 305-688-0811
Fax: 305-688-6304 Directions to the Miami Center

ORLANDO CENTER (OAK RIDGE)
1018 West Oak Ridge Rd., Orlando, FL 32809
Tel: 407-859-8797
Fax: 407-859-8798 Directions to the Oak Ridge Center

ORLANDO CENTER (ROSEWOOD)
3927 Rosewood way, Orlando, FL 32810
Tel: 407-292-2200 Directions to the Rosewood Center

OraQuick
In-Home HIV Test

What is OraQuick​ In-Home HIV Test and how does it work?

The OraQuick In-Home HIV Test is a rapid self-administered over-the-counter (OTC) test and tests for HIV in oral fluid. This test works by looking for your body’s response (antibodies) to fighting the HIV virus. A positive result is preliminary, and follow-up testing is needed.

What is included?

The OraQuick In-Home HIV Test kit consists of:
Testing directions
A disposal bag
A single use test stick (device) to collect the specimen
A single use test tube (vial) prefilled with 1mL of developer solution
Two information booklets (“HIV, Testing and Me” and “What your results mean to you”)
Phone numbers for testing support

How do I perform the test?

The OraQuick test package contains step-by-step instructions and it is extremely important to carefully read and follow all labeled directions. The kit is designed to allow HIV testing to be done anonymously and in private. To perform the at home test:
  • Use the test stick (device) and swab the upper and lower gums.
  • Insert the test stick (device) into the kit’s test tube (vial) which contains a developer solution.
  • Wait 20-40 minutes before you read the test result.
If any piece of the test kit is missing or appears to have been opened, do not use the test and contact the OraQuick Support Center toll free at I -866-436-6527.

How do I perform the test?

As noted in the package insert, clinical studies have shown that the OraQuick In-Home HIV Test has an expected performance of approximately 92% for test sensitivity (i.e., the percentage of results that will be positive when HIV is present). Even when used according to the labeled directions, there will be some false negative results and a small number of false positive results.
  • A positive result with this test does not mean that an individual is definitely infected with HIV but rather that additional testing should be done in a medical setting to confirm the test result.

  • A negative test result does not mean that an individual is definitely not infected with HIV, particularly when exposure may have been within the previous three months.

How do I perform the test?

It can take some time for the immune system to produce enough antibodies for the test to detect, and this time period can vary from person to person. This timeframe is commonly referred to as the “window period,” when a person is infected with HIV but antibodies to the virus cannot be detected, however, the person may be able to infect others. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, although it can take up to 6 months to develop antibodies for HIV, most people (97%) will develop detectable antibodies in the first 3 months following the time of their infection.

How can I prevent getting HIV from injection drug use?

Never Share Needles, Syringes, or Other Drug Injection Equipment

  • Use new, clean syringes and injection equipment every time you inject.
  • Many communities have syringe services programs(SSPs) where you can get new needles and syringes and safely dispose of used ones.
  • Some pharmacies sell needles without a prescription.

Find an SSP near youexternal icon.

Take PrEP

  • PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) is medicine people at risk for HIV take to prevent HIV.
  • If taken as prescribed, PrEP is highly effective for preventing HIV from injection drug use.
  • PrEP is much less effective when it is not taken as prescribed.
  • Find out if PrEP is right for you.

 

Don’t Have Sex When You’re High on Drugs

  • You’re more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors.
  • If you do have sex, use condoms the right way every time.
  • Learn the right way to use an external condom(sometimes called a male condom) and an internal condom (sometimes called a female condom).

If You Do Share Needles, Syringes, or Other Drug Injection Equipment, Use Bleach to Clean Them

Decide Not to Inject Drugs

  • This is the best way to prevent getting HIV through injection drug use.
  • Talk with a counselor, doctor, or other health care provider about treatment for substance use disorder, including medication-assisted treatment.

Find a Treatment Center

How can I prevent getting HIV from sex?

Choose Sexual Activities With Little to No Risk

  • Choose sex that is less risky than anal or vaginal sex. There is little to no risk of getting HIV through oral sex.
  • You can’t get HIV from sexual activities that don’t involve contact with body fluids (semen, vaginal fluid, or blood).
  • Learn more about how HIV is and is not transmitted.

Use Condoms the Right Way Every Time You Have Sex

  • Condoms are highly effective in preventing HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), like gonorrhea and chlamydia.
  • Use water-based or silicone-based lubricants to help prevent condoms from breaking or slipping during sex.
  • Learn the right way to use an external condom(sometimes called a male condom) and an internal condom (sometimes called a female condom).

Take PrEP

  • PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) is medicine people at risk for HIV take to prevent HIV.
  • If taken as prescribed, PrEP is highly effective for preventing HIV from sex.
  • PrEP is much less effective when it is not taken as prescribed.
  • Find out if PrEP is right for you.

Decide Not to Have Sex

  • Not having sex (also known as being abstinent) is a 100% effective way to make sure you won’t get HIV through sex.
  • You can be abstinent at different times in your life for different reasons that may change over time.
  • Not having sex also prevents other STDs and pregnancy.

Get Tested and Treated for Other STDs

  • If you have another STD, you are more likely to get HIV. Getting tested and treated for other STDs can lower your chances of getting HIV.
  • Many people with an STD may not know they have one because they don’t have symptoms.
  • Find a testing site near you.

If Your Partner Has HIV, Encourage Your Partner to Get and Stay in Treatment

  • This is the most important thing your partner can do to stay healthy.
  • If your partner takes HIV medicine and gets and keeps an undetectable viral load, there is effectively no risk of you getting HIV from sex with your partner.
  • Learn more about the benefits of HIV treatment as prevention.

What should I expect when I go in for an HIV test?

If you get a test in a health care setting or lab, a health care provider or lab technician will take your sample (blood or oral fluid). If it’s a rapid test, you may be able to wait for the results, but if it is a laboratory test, it can take several days for your results to be available. Your health care provider or counselor may talk with you about your risk factors, answer any questions you might have, and discuss next steps with you, especially if your result is positive.

  • If the test comes back negative, and you haven’t had a possible exposure during the window periodfor the test you took, you can be confident you don’t have HIV.
  • If your test result is positive, the lab will conduct follow-up testing, usually on the same blood sample as the first test.

If you are tested outside of a health care setting or a lab, you will likely receive a rapid test (oral fluid or finger stick).

  • If the test comes back negative, and you haven’t had a possible exposure during the previous 3 months, you can be confident you don’t have HIV.
  • If your test result is positive, you should go to a health care provider to get follow-up testing. Counselors providing the test should be able to answer questions and provide referrals for follow-up testing as well.

Who will pay for my HIV test?

HIV screening is covered by health insurance without a co-pay, as required by the Affordable Care Act. If you do not have medical insurance, some testing sites may offer free tests.

How does taking an HIV test help me?

Knowing your HIV status gives you powerful information to keep you and your partner healthy.

  • If you test positive, you can take medicine to treat HIV. Taking HIV medicine as prescribed can make the amount of HIV in your blood (viral load) very low—so low that a test can’t detect it (called an undetectable viral load). Getting and keeping an undetectable viral load is the best thing you can do to stay healthy. If your viral load stays undetectable, you have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner through sex.
  • If you test negative, there are more HIV prevention toolsavailable today than ever before.
  • If you are pregnant, you should be tested for HIV so that you can begin treatment if your test is positive. If a woman with HIV is treated early in her pregnancy, the risk of transmitting HIV to her baby is extremely low (1% or less).

I’m pregnant. Why should I get tested?

All pregnant women should be tested for HIV so that they can begin treatment if they have HIV. If a woman is treated for HIV early in her pregnancy, the risk of transmitting HIV to her baby is extremely low (1% or less). Testing pregnant women for HIV infection and treating those women who have HIV has led to a huge decline in the number of children born with HIV.

The treatment is most effective when started as early as possible during a pregnancy. However, there are still great health benefits to beginning preventive treatment even during labor or shortly after the baby is born.

I don’t believe I am at high risk. Why should I get tested?

CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of 13 and 64 get tested for HIV at least once as part of routine health care, and more often if you do things that might increase your risk for getting HIV.

Even if you are in a monogamous relationship (both you and your partner are having sex only with each other), you should find out for sure whether you or your partner has HIV.

Should I get tested for HIV?

CDC recommends everyone between the ages of 13 and 64 get tested for HIV at least once.

People at higher risk should get tested more often. If you were HIV-negative the last time you were tested, the test was more than one year ago, and you can answer yes to any of the following questions, then you should get an HIV test as soon as possible:

  • Are you a man who has had sex with another man?
  • Have you had sex—anal or vaginal—with a partner who has HIV?
  • Have you had more than one sex partner since your last HIV test?
  • Have you injected drugs and shared needles, syringes, or other drug injection equipment (for example, cookers) with others?
  • Have you exchanged sex for drugs or money?
  • Have you been diagnosed with or treated for another sexually transmitted disease?
  • Have you been diagnosed with or treated for hepatitis or tuberculosis (TB)?
  • Have you had sex with someone who could answer yes to any of the above questions or someone whose sexual history you don’t know?

You should be tested at least once a year if you keep doing any of these things. Sexually active gay and bisexual men may benefit from more frequent testing (for example, every 3 to 6 months).

If you’re pregnant, talk to your health care provider about getting tested for HIV and other ways to protect you and your child from getting HIV.

Before having sex for the first time with a new partner, you and your partner should talk about your sexual and drug-use history, disclose your HIV status, and consider getting tested for HIV and learning the results.

Am I legally required to share my HIV status with others?

In some states, there are lawsexternal icon that require you to share your HIV status with your sex or injection partners. Sharing your status with anyone else is your choice.

Sex or Injection Partners

Telling your partners that you have HIV before you have sex or inject drugs may be uncomfortable. But doing so protects you under the law. It also allows your partners to make decisions that can protect their health.

You should also tell your current or former partners if you’ve been diagnosed with another sexually transmitted disease (STD). This lets them know that they should also get tested for other STDs.

There are a few ways to let your partners know:

You tell your partners.

  • These conversations can be hard. You may have been exposed to HIV by one of your partners, or you may have exposed one or more of them without knowing.
  • Learn how to start the conversation.

 

The health department tells your partners.

  • This is sometimes called “Partner Services.”
  • Health department staff tell your current and former partners that they may have been exposed to HIV.
  • The health department will provide your partners with testing, counseling, and referrals for other services.
  • Partner Services programs are available through health departments and some medical offices and clinics.
  • Your healthcare provider, social worker, case manager, patient navigator, or HIV testing center can help you find a Partner Services program.

Health Care Providers

Health care providers and other HIV service providers need to know so they can support you and protect themselves.

  • They can help make sure you have access to the health care services that you need.
  • They will remember to be very careful and take precautions such as wearing gloves to avoid direct contact with blood.

Family and Friends

Sharing your HIV status with certain family members and friends has emotional and practical benefits.

  • Your family and friends can help you deal with an HIV diagnosis.
  • They can support you with the longer-term issues of treatment.
  • They can help you disclose your status to others.
  • They can speak for you in case of an emergency.
  • They can help you navigate the medical system.

Learn how to share your status with family and friends.

Employers

You do not have to tell your employer.

What are the different tests that help monitor my HIV?

Your health care provider will use blood tests to monitor your HIV infection. These tests help your health care provider make decisions about changes to your treatment.

CD4 Count

  • Your CD4 count is the number of CD4 cells you have in your blood. CD4 cells help your body fight infections.
  • HIV attacks and lowers the number of CD4 cells in your blood. This makes it difficult for your body to fight infections.
  • Your health care provider will check your CD4 count every 3 to 6 months.

Viral Load Test

  • Viral load is the amount of HIV in your blood.
  • Your health care provider will use a viral load test to determine your viral load.
  • When your viral load is high, you have more HIV in your body. This means your immune system is not fighting HIV very well.
  • You should have a viral load test
    • every 4 to 6 months,
    • before you take a new HIV medicine, and
    • around 2 to 8 weeks after starting or changing medicine.

What can I expect during a medical visit?

During your medical visit, your health care provider may ask questions and conduct routine medical exams to see how HIV is affecting your body.

Your health care provider may

  • Take a blood sample to check your viral load.
  • Ask questions about your health history.
  • Look for other kinds of infections or health problems. Some health problems may weaken your body, make your HIV worse, or prevent your treatment from working.
  • Give you immunizations, if you need them.
  • Discuss, prescribe, and monitor your HIV medicine.
  • Discuss ways to help you follow your HIV treatment plan.
  • Help identify other support you may need.
  • Ask about your sexual or injection partners and discuss ways to protect themfrom getting HIV.

What do I need to do as part of my HIV care?

Take Your HIV Medicine as Prescribed

  • This will help keep your viral load low and your CD4 count high.
  • Take your HIV medicine exactly how your health care provider tells you to—at specific times of the day, with or without certain kinds of food.
  • Keep track of your medicine and schedule.
  • Talk to your health care provider or pharmacist if you have questions about when or how to take your medicine, or if you are experiencing any side effects.

Keep Your Medical Appointments

  • Use a calendar to mark your appointment days.
  • Set reminders on your phone.
  • Download an app on your phone that can help remind you of your medical appointments.
  • Keep your appointment card in a place where you will see it.
  • Ask a family member or friend to help you remember your appointment.

Talk Honestly with Your Healthcare Provider

  • Your health care provider needs to have the most accurate information to manage your care and treatment.
  • Write down questions you want to discuss with your health care provider. Be ready to write down the answers.
  • Keep track of your lab results, medical visits, and care and treatment plans.
  • Make sure your health care providers have your correct contact information.

Who should be on my health care team?

Finding a health care teamexternal icon that is knowledgeable about HIV care is an important step. Your health care team will help you manage your care and treatment.

 

Primary HIV Health Care Provider

Your primary HIV health care provider should lead your health care team. Your primary HIV health care provider may be a

  • Medical Doctor (MD or DO),
  • Nurse Practitioner (NP), or
  • Physician Assistant (PA).

Your primary HIV health care provider will

  • determine which HIV medicine is best for you,
  • prescribe HIV medicine(called antiretroviral therapy or ART),
  • monitor your progress and help you manage your health, and
  • put you in touch with other HIV providers who can address your needs.

Other HIV Providers

Your health care team may include other providers who are experts in taking care of people with HIV.

  • Allied health care professionalslike nurses, mental health providers, pharmacists, nutritionists, and dentists.
  • Social service providerslike social workers, case managers, substance use specialists, and patient navigators.

The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Programexternal icon provides access to medical care, medicationexternal icon, and essential support services if you need assistance.

Talk to your health care provider about problems taking your HIV medicine.

  • Problems taking pills. This can make staying on treatment challenging. Your health care provider can offer tips and ideas for addressing these problems.
  • Side effects from medicine. Nausea or diarrhea can make a person not want to take their pills. There are medicines or other support, like nutritional counseling to make sure you’re getting important nutrients. This can help with the most common side effects.
  • Treatment fatigue.Some people find that sticking to their treatment plan becomes harder over time. Make it a point to talk to your health care provider about staying on your treatment plan.

Sticking to my treatment plan is hard. How can I deal with the challenges?

Tell your health care provider right away if you’re having trouble sticking to your plan. Together you can identify the reasons you’re skipping medications and make a plan to address those reasons.

Talk to your health care provider about problems taking your HIV medicine.

  • Problems taking pills. This can make staying on treatment challenging. Your health care provider can offer tips and ideas for addressing these problems.
  • Side effects from medicine. Nausea or diarrhea can make a person not want to take their pills. There are medicines or other support, like nutritional counseling to make sure you’re getting important nutrients. This can help with the most common side effects.
  • Treatment fatigue.Some people find that sticking to their treatment plan becomes harder over time. Make it a point to talk to your health care provider about staying on your treatment plan.

Plan ahead and keep extra medicine with you.

  • A busy schedule. Work or travel away from home can make it easy to forget to take pills. It may be possible to keep extra medicine at work or in your car. But talk to your health care provider first. Some medications are affected by extreme temperatures and it is not always possible to keep medications at work. Find help for mental health or substance use disorders.
  • Being sick or depressed.How you feel mentally and physically can affect your willingness to stick to your treatment plan. Your health care provider, social worker, or case manager can refer you to a mental health provider or local support groups.
  • Alcohol or drug use. If substance use is interfering with your ability to keep yourself healthy, it may be time to quit or better manage it.
  • If you need help finding substance use disorder treatment or mental health services, use SAMHSA’s Treatment Locatorexternal icon.

Talk to your health care provider if you miss a lot of doses of your HIV medicine.

 

  • Missing a dose.In most cases, you can take your medicine as soon as you realize you missed a dose. Then take the next dose at your usual scheduled time (unless your pharmacist or health care provider has told you something different).
  • Missing a lot of doses.Talk to your health care provider or pharmacist about ways to help you remember your medicine. You and your health care provider may even decide to change your treatment routine to fit your health care needs and life situation.

Join a support group or ask your family and friends for support. They can help you stick to your treatment plan.

What if my treatment is not working?

  • Your health care provider may change your prescription.
  • A change is not unusual because the same treatment does not affect everyone in the same way.

Will HIV treatment interfere with my hormone therapy?

  • There are no known drug interactions between HIV medicine and hormone therapy.
  • Talk to your health care provider if you are worried about taking HIV medicine and hormone therapy at the same time. Your health care provider will help you stay healthy and ensure your hormone therapy stays on track.

Does HIV medicine cause side effects?

HIV medicine can cause side effects in some people. However, not everyone experiences side effects. The most common side effects are

  • Nausea and vomiting,
  • Diarrhea,
  • Difficulty sleeping,
  • Dry mouth,
  • Headache,
  • Rash,
  • Dizziness,
  • Fatigue, and

Talk to your health care provider if your treatment makes you sick. Your health care provider may prescribe medicines to help manage the side effects or may change your treatment plan.

What are the benefits of taking my HIV medicine every day as prescribed?

Treatment Reduces the Amount of HIV in the Blood

  • The amount of HIV in the blood is called viral load.
  • Taking your HIV medicine as prescribed will help keep your viral load low and your CD4 cell count high.
  • HIV medicine can make the viral load very low (called viral suppression). Viral suppression is defined as having less than 200 copies of HIV per milliliter of blood.
  • HIV medicine can make the viral load so low that a test can’t detect it (called an undetectable viral load).
  • If your viral load goes down after starting HIV treatment, that means treatment is working. Continue to take your medicine as prescribed.
  • If you skip your medications, even now and then, you are giving HIV the chance to multiply rapidly. This could weaken your immune system, and you could become sick.
  • Getting and keeping an undetectable viral load (or staying virally suppressed) is the best way to stay healthy and protect others.

Treatment Helps Prevent Transmission to Others

  • If you have an undetectable viral load, you have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner through sex.
  • Having an undetectable viral load may also help prevent transmission from injection drug use. We don’t have data about whether having an undetectable viral load prevents transmission through sharing needles, syringes, or other injection equipment (for example, cookers). It very likely reduces the risk, but we don’t know by how much.
  • Having an undetectable viral load also helps prevent transmission from mother to baby. If a mother with HIV takes HIV medicine as prescribed throughout pregnancy, labor, and delivery and gives HIV medicine to her baby for 4 to 6 weeks after birth, the risk of transmitting HIV to her baby can be 1% or less.
  • Having an undetectable viral load reduces the risk of transmitting HIV to the baby through breastfeeding, but doesn’t eliminate the risk. The current recommendation in the United States is that mothers with HIV should not breastfeed their babies.

Taking Treatment as Prescribed Helps Prevent Drug Resistance

  • Taking HIV medication consistently, as prescribed, helps prevent drug resistance.
  • Drug resistance develops when people with HIV are inconsistent with taking their HIV medication as prescribed. The virus can change (mutate) and will no longer respond to certain HIV medication.
  • If you develop drug resistance, it will limit your options for successful HIV treatment.
  • Drug-resistant strains of HIV can be transmitted to others.

What if I delay treatment?

  • HIV will continue to harm your immune system.
  • This will put you at higher risk for developing AIDS. Learn more about AIDS and opportunistic infections.
  • This will put you at higher risk for transmitting HIV to your sexual and injection partners.

When should I start treatment?

Start Treatment As Soon As Possible After Diagnosis

  • HIV medicine is recommended for all people with HIV, regardless of how long they’ve had the virus or how healthy they are.
  • Talk to your health care provider about any medical conditions you may have or any other medicines you are taking.
  • Let your health care provider know if you or your partner is pregnant or thinking about getting pregnant. They will determine the right type of HIV medicine that can help prevent transmitting HIV to your baby.

What is HIV treatment?

HIV treatment involves taking medicine that reduces the amount of HIV in your body.

  • HIV medicine is called antiretroviral therapy (ART).
  • There is no effective cure for HIV. But with proper medical care, you can control HIV.
  • Most people can get the virus under control within six months.
  • Taking HIV medicine does not prevent transmission of other sexually transmitted diseases.

What should I do if I just got diagnosed with HIV?

Take Time to Process the News

  • Receiving an HIV diagnosis can be life changing. You may feel many emotions—sadness, hopelessness, or anger.
  • Allied health care providers and social service providers can help you work through the early stages of your diagnosis. They are often available at your health care provider’s office.
  • Learn more about what a positive test result means.

Find HIV Care

 

Start HIV Treatment As Soon As Possible After Diagnosis

  • Get in care and take medicine to treat HIV(called antiretroviral therapy or ART).
  • Taking HIV medicine can reduce the amount of HIV in the blood (called viral load).
  • HIV medicine can make the viral load very low (called viral suppression). Viral suppression is defined as having less than 200 copies of HIV per milliliter of blood.
  • HIV medicine can make the viral load so low that a test can’t detect it (called an undetectable viral load).
  • Getting and keeping an undetectable viral load (or staying virally suppressed) is the best thing you can do to stay healthy. Having an undetectable viral loadalso helps prevent transmission to others. In fact, if you have an undetectable viral load, you have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner through sex. Most people can get the virus under control within six months.
  • Learn more about the benefits of HIV treatment.

What does an HIV diagnosis mean?

  • If you receive an HIV diagnosis, it means that you have HIV.
  • Unlike some other viruses, the human body can’t get rid of HIV completely. Once you have HIV, you have it for life.
  • But with proper medical care, HIV can be controlled. People with HIV who get effective HIV treatment can live long, healthy lives and protect their partners.

What can be done about HIV stigma?

Talk About HIV

Talking openly about HIV can help normalize the subject. It also provides opportunities to correct misconceptions and help others learn more about HIV. But be mindful of how you talk about HIV and people living with HIV. The Let’s Stop HIV Together stigma language guide can help.

Take Action

We can all help end HIV stigma through our words and actions in our everyday lives. Lead others with your supportive behaviors. Check out the Let’s Stop HIV Together stigma scenarios for tips on what you can do when you witness stigma. You can also make a pledge to stop HIV stigma by downloading a pledge card to customize and post on your website, blog, and social media channel.

What causes HIV stigma?

HIV stigma is rooted in a fear of HIV. Many of our ideas about HIV come from the HIV images that first appeared in the early 1980s. There are still misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted and what it means to live with HIV today.

The lack of information and awareness combined with outdated beliefs lead people to fear getting HIV. Additionally, many people think of HIV as a disease that only certain groups get. This leads to negative value judgements about people who are living with HIV.

What are the effects of HIV stigma and discrimination?

HIV stigma and discrimination affect the emotional well-being and mental health of people living with HIV. People living with HIV often internalize the stigma they experience and begin to develop a negative self-image. They may fear they will be discriminated against or judged negatively if their HIV status is revealed.

“Internalized stigma” or “self-stigma” happens when a person takes in the negative ideas and stereotypes about people living with HIV and starts to apply them to themselves. HIV internalized stigma can lead to feelings of shame, fear of disclosure, isolation, and despair. These feelings can keep people from getting tested and treated for HIV.

What is discrimination?

While stigma refers to an attitude or belief, discrimination is the behaviors that result from those attitudes or beliefs. HIV discrimination is the act of treating people living with HIV differently than those without HIV.

Here are a few examples:

  • A health care professional refusing to provide care or services to a person living with HIV
  • Refusing casual contact with someone living with HIV
  • Socially isolating a member of a community because they are HIV positive
  • Referring to people as HIVers or Positives

What is HIV stigma?

HIV stigma is negative attitudes and beliefs about people with HIV. It is the prejudice that comes with labeling an individual as part of a group that is believed to be socially unacceptable.

Here are a few examples:

  • Believing that only certain groups of people can get HIV
  • Making moral judgments about people who take steps to prevent HIV transmission
  • Feeling that people deserve to get HIV because of their choices